Sperm whales feed on several species, notably the Giant Squid, the Colossal Squid, octopuses, and diverse fish like demersal rays, but the main part of their diet consists of medium sized squid.
Sperm Whales can live 70 years or more. They are a prime example of a species that has been K-selected, a reproductive strategy associated with very stable environmental conditions that is characterized by a low birth rate, significant parental aid to offspring, slow maturation and high longevity.
The manner in which it is determined which males breed with which females has not been definitively determined. There is evidence that the males have dominance hierarchies and there is also evidence that female choice influences the mating system. A single calf is born after a gestation period of 14 to 16 months. Lactation proceeds for 19 to 42 months, but the calf may suckle for up to 13 years (although usually less). Calves can suckle from females other than their mothers. Females generally have interbirth intervals of three to six years.
Females reach sexual maturity at between 7 and 13 years old, but males do not become sexually mature until at least 18 years old. Upon reaching sexual maturity, males move to higher latitudes, where the water is colder and feeding is more productive. Females remain at lower latitudes upon reaching sexual maturity.